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Odessa grains or globuli in Odessa.

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     Homeopathy and Homeopathic Pharmacy in Odessa
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Moreover, in 1909 the Administrative board of Odessa Hahnemann Society agreed to the polemics concerning the right homoeopathy to existence, offered by Odessa doctor A. Tsenovskiy (afterwards condemned by tsar's authorities for reactionism). However, judging by the materials, A. Tsenovskiy, who furiously held up to shame homoeopathy at the IX Pirogov Congress (1905), gave up a discussion concerning the method becoming so popular among different strata of the population in future.

It is seen on the example of Odessa, how homoeopathy developed in the largest cities of the Russian Empire before 1917. There were the representatives of the highest of society and emperor's names (with possibilities of sound grants) among the homoeopathy followers that promoted spread of homoeopathic medicine. In province homoeopathic pharmacies, hospitals, and Societies (in overwhelming majority they were not physicians) appeared later, in comparison with a capital, they began to publish journals. Activity of all these establishments, formal associations and channels of scientific communication was regulated by the uniform laws of Russia, and, therefore, there was a number of general features in history of homoeopathy in different parts of the Empire, n Warsaw or Odessa, Riga or Tiflis, Kiev or Vilno. On the whole development of homoeopathy in the Russian Empire went extensively at the end of the 19th- beginning of the 20th century- the number of doctors and pharmacists-homoeopaths, pharmacies and medical establishments, journals and associations of homoeopathy followers was growing. At the beginning of the 20th century a necessity in holding of All-Russian congresses arose for co-ordination of activity and elaboration of general approaches.

In 1913 the 1st All-Russian congress of homoeopathy followers was held in Petersburg. The Board of administration of Odessa homoeopathic Society was one of the first (yet in 1901 and in the brochure of the I.M. Lutsenko 1902 year) to raise a question about the necessity of holding periodic congresses. The delegates from the Society were a member of the State Duma the bishop Anthony, elected the vice -chairman of the congress, Dyukov and Lutsenko (they were elected the secretaries). Over 650 delegates were registered at the congress. Odessa pharmacist Yu.A. Levi, baron Lev Fedorovich Meyendorf and members of their families were included in the lists of Congress members (persons of both sexes sharing its aims, and paying membership payment of 3 roubles were considered to be the members of the Congress and not necessarily arriving at the Congress).

With the beginning of the World War I, and then civil war, the activity of OHS came to an end, and as to OOHF, its work probably ceased before. The last official information about the work of Odessa Hahnemann Society goes back to 1914.
It is seen that homoeopathic treatment occupied important place in the structure of medical care and prophylactic measures on the break of the 19th-20th century; the large number of referrals of patients to homoeopaths and support from the authorative, spiritual and commercial structures were demonstration of its efficiency. It is sad that glorious traditions of Odessa homoeopathic school stopped after the events of 1917 .

Since 1917 (however, it is necessary to move this border to 1920 for Odessa , when the Soviet power was finally established in the city) a new period has begun, which requires a special study. It is also necessary to consider separately the attitude of most representatives of medical corporation of Russia toward homoeopathy that was expressed in stormy discussions on the pages of both general and medical press.

Before starting to describe further periods in the history of homoeopathy in the South region of Ukraine, we will stop on biography of one of brightest representatives of homoeopathy in tsar's Russia, Ivan Mitrofanovich Lutsenko. Ivan Lutsenko was born on February (On March, 7), 23, 1863 in Poltava, in the village Keybalovka of Priryatinsk okolotok (region). After finishing school he studied at Petersburg military medical academy, where he defended doctoral dissertation which was published as a separate book in 1893. Since 1893 I.M. Lutsenko lived in Odessa, in Khersonskaya street (Pasteur), 52. Having arranged a consulting room at home, Ivan Mitrofanovich ran a private practice. As the "Yuzhnorusskaya medical newspaper" informed, soon he became the member of Society of Odessa doctors, and often came forward with lectures on nontraditional treatment of diseases at the meetings, which caused a heated polemic. He became the defender of homoeopathic treatment, and, soon, became a member of Odessa Society of homoeopathy followers, then he became a secretary and treasurer of Odessa Hahnemann Society (see higher). He corresponded with the homoeopaths of Russia and Europe, published numerous brochures and books, became the translator of Homoeopathic pharmacodynamics of E. Farrington and a number of other books. The papers of I.M. Lutsenko were published by leading Russian professional editions. He (after Dr Dyukov elected the head of the town Horol) became the editor of the Bulletin of homoeopathic medicine published in Odessa from 1903 to 1906. In addition, I.M. Lutsenko with colleagues founded Odessa literary society in 1903 publishing the almanacs of the leading writers of that time. Soon Ivan Lutsenko, seeing greater part of patients in both out-patient clinics of the Society free of charge, and others only for 30 copecks, became so popular personality in the city that in 1905 he was elected the deputy of the Council of peoples deputies from Ukrainian democratic party by the citizens of Odessa. But he did not abandon practical medical and public activity for the sake of homoeopathy, he wrote articles, delivered lectures. Soon tsar's power stopped the activity of the Council, and I.M. Lutsenko directed his energy at the Society Enlightenment. Ivan Lutsenko organized many thousand mass meetings which frightened the governor of the town and policemaster of Odessa. Since January, 8, 1906 I.M. Lutsenko published the Ukrainian newspaper Peoples business first in Odessa. Soon the newspaper halted its existence, and everything that was related to it, was confiscated by the authorities. I.M. Lutsenko, his wife and daughter Nastya were under permanent surveillance. Ivan Lutsenko was acquainted with many Ukrainian writers ( Mikhail Kotsyubinskiy, Mikhail Voronoy, Ivan Nechuy-Levitskiy, Ivan Lipa), and even examined Ivan Franko as a doctor. In 1913 he participated in the First All-Russian Congress of doctors-homoeopaths in Saint Petersburg, and a number of other forums.

Since spring 1917 I.M. Lutsenko became the comrade (vice-chairman) of the leader of the Ukrainian Party of socialists-samostiynuki (independent). He created Military Council in Odessa, and, since April, 26, 1917 I.M. Lutsenko created the Ukrainian military kosh in the region. Further Ivan Mitrofanovich was introduced into the authorities of Central Rada. At the First All-Ukrainian military congress military doctor I.M. Lutsenko was elected the member of Ukrainian General Military Committee. It is by the order of I.M. Lutsenko that a yellow-blue flag was raised above Odessa as a symbol of Ukrainian sovereignty and power.

So, in 1917-1919 I.M. Lutsenko had three positions: a physician, publicist and military specialist. He was interested in both sanitary-hygienic and public and military-political themes. He was not only listened and respected but also loved infinitely. A deciding word was after Ivan Lutsenko at any disputes (both in the matters of Odessa homoeopathic Societies and in the fight for Ukrainian freedom).

Ivan Mitrofanovich Lutsenko, a wonderful specialist in homoeopathy, humanist and fighter for freedom was killed near the small station of Antonini (near by Khmelnitsky) in summer 1919

A period from 1918 to 1938 was not noteworthy for homoeopathy in Odessa. Information about homoeopaths and homoeopathic pharmacies of that period is practically lost. It is interesting that the future founder of Ukrainian homoeopathic school Demyan Vladimirovich Popov (graduated from Odessa medical institute in 1925) delivered his first lecture about the successful use of homoeopathic method of treatment at the meeting of Odessa Society of internists in 1935. The same year D.V. Popov with his family moved to Kiev.

In a period from 1939 to our days the development of homoeopathic medicine and homoeopathic pharmacy was characterized by undulating development. Homoeopathic departments were opened at two pharmacies in Odessa after the Great Patriotic war. However, till the end of the 80s of the 20th century, doctors preferred to be engaged in homoeopathic practice at home, and did not create any professional associations. Moreover, there were no licensed centres of professional education of doctors and pharmacists on homoeopathy in Ukraine till 1988. The period from 1945 to 1970 was characterized by work of homoeopaths Yosif Levovich Shepotjev (practiced at home in Krasny lane), Maya Nikolaevna Rayvo (at home), Semen Patlis (till 1975 practiced in a self-supporting polyclinic, then left for the USA). However, all Odessa specialists did not discontinue communications with colleagues from Moscow, Leningrad, Kishinev, Kharkov and Kiev, where the centres of development and propaganda of the homoeopathic method of treatment were preserved. In addition, every summer, up to 1980, Demyan Vladimirovich Popov and his daughter Tatyana Demyanovna Popova arrived in Odessa to their country house, and carried out the consultation of persons interested to get homoeopathic treatment.

The revival of the method in Odessa region (in a century of the described events) coincided with growth of interest to homoeopathy in the whole world (1989-92). In 1989 the courses of homoeopathy were opened in Kiev at the firm The Popovs and Co (under the guidance of Deserved doctor of Ukraine T.D. Popova) and at the department of pharmaceutical chemistry of Kiev Institute of advanced training of doctors (under the guidance of the associate professor A.P. Moschich, student of D. Popov). Odessa doctors go for getting education not only to Kiev but also to Moscow. Specialists on homoeopathy and homoeopathic pharmacies again begin to consolidate around Kiev and Odessa.

Since 1994 professor N.E. Kostinskaya opens the cycle of homoeopathy at private Medical Institute of UANM (Ukrainian Association of nontraditional medicine) in Kiev, having moved from Russia. However, this project remained unsuccessful. N.E. Kostinskaya published a number of guidances on homoeopathy, held seminars (1996-1999) in Lvov, Zaporozhia, Kharkov, Odessa. N.E. Kostinskaya has been representing Ukraine in international medical homoeopathic League as a national vice-president since 1997 .

Teaching of homoeopathy was started at Odessa medical institute (elective cycle at the department of hospital therapy by G.F. Mamchenko and G.P. Kolesova). However, at that moment none of lecturers had even initial courses on the bases of homoeopathy. In 1992, along with the existing pharmacy 30, the pharmacy 271 was opened, where the homoeopaths of the city consolidated around. The library of dilutions comprised about 300 remedies in 1994. Doctors Ivaniv, Kovalenko, Kolesova participated in the largest seminars, symposiums and conferences on homoeopathy in 1995-96. Collaboration with Kiev homoeopathic school has been resumed since 1996. The first seminars in Odessa were held by the institute of nontraditional medicine, and foreign specialists.

In 1996, in 106 years, the Society (Charity Fund) of homoeopathy followers was revived (G.P. Kolesova and Board of administration consisting of M.A. Yasinovskaya, O.P. Ivaniv, L.M. Zinchenko), aims and tasks of which were distribution of the method among the professionals and population, help in development of homoeopathic pharmacies, lecturing and information. From 1996 to 1998 29 members of the Society took five out seminars, delivered 37 lectures, took part in Moscow and Saint Petersburg professional forums.

Since 1996 representatives of Odessa homoeopathic society and Odessa homoeopathic pharmacy begin to collaborate with the World homoeopathic Society Hippocrates; preparation in advanced training of specialists of the city and region is started at the courses and seminars in Odessa, Kiev, Moscow, and abroad.

Creation of a scientific-medical homoeopathic Society of Odessa region (a chairman of the Board is O.P.Ivaniv) in 1998, edition of the first volume of Ukrainian homoeopathic annual and holding of the First Congress of homoeopaths of Ukraine Urgent issues of homoeopathic medicine (October, 1998) were a powerful contribution to development of homoeopathy in Odessa. In the same year the edition of Bulletin of homoeopathic medicine was resumed and it was decided to create the Association of homoeopaths of Ukraine (President - A.V. Popov, vice-presidents - O.P. Ivaniv, T.D.Popova, A.P. Moschich).

In the same 1998, a central homoeopathic pharmacy was created in Odessa, by association of the existing pharmacies in accordance with the joint decision of the OAS Pharmacy. It allowed to fill up the library of dilutions and to make it the largest in CIS and Baltia, and also to certify the pharmacy at Ludvig Boltsman Institute of homoeopathy by (Vienna).

The stage of holding seminars and courses of the advanced training in Odessa, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov and Kiev begins. A number of specialists raised the level of their skills in Greece, Great Britain, India, Israel and Russia. Departments and cycles of homoeopathy were opened in all higher medical Institutes of Ukraine .

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