Odessa grains or globuli in Odessa.


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     Homeopathy and Homeopathic Pharmacy in Odessa
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(XIX-XXI centuries)

History of development of homoeopathy in the South region of Ukraine can certainly be considered from localizational or "samostiynist" positions so fashionable now. However, many facts of history of development of homoeopathy in tsar's Russia and after 1917 are so closely intertwined between themselves that it is impossible to consider them one by one.

However, it should be noted that at the end of the 19th - beginning of 20th century it is on territory of Ukraine and Poland that there was most of associations of homoeopaths, homoeopathic pharmacies and specialists in tsar's Russia (Odessa, Kiev, Yekaterinoslav, Berdichev, Zhitomir, Chernigov, Poltava, Horol, Kharkov, Feodosiya, Kamenets-Podolskiy, Warsaw). The earliest information about homoeopathic practice (since 1826) in Zhitomir and Tulchin are present in the biography of Valenti (Valentin) Cherminsky, who did a lot for propaganda of homoeopathy, including the highest stratum of power. Later Kiev Society of homoeopathy followers was founded in 1889. Chernigov Society of homoeopathy followers get to work since 11/07/1891. Kharkov Society of homoeopathy followers was created on 27/10/1891. Poltava Society of homoeopathy followers worked since 30/04/1893. Public associations of homoeopathy followers in Yalta and Feodosia were registered on the break of 1899-1900. The Society of homoeopaths in Kaments-Podolsk was formed in 1903, and continued its work till 1913. However, even in Kiev, in the presence of a few homoeopathic pharmacies, there were periods, when there were no homoeopaths in the city, and the periodical editions published invocatory announcements about the necessity of homoeopaths, with promises of extended practice.

Such interest to homoeopathic medical treatment already in the 19th century was justified indeed, both among the noblemen and squires, and among all population. The given fact was mostly associated with the fact that the south regions of Ukraine, because of their social, sanitary- hygienic, trade and climatic features, were most subject to the threatening epidemics (quite often served as an entrance gate for them), But it was homoeopathic medicine that showed outstanding possibilities in healing and prophylaxis in different epidemics. The doctors were always given help by priests, teachers, city and rural councils.

We will begin our account since the middle of the 19th century. It was a period when information about homoeopathy and its first followers began to appear in the Novorossia center, Odessa, called South Palmira, and the city being the fourth in the amount of population in the Russian Empire. The well-known researcher of the history of medicine, professor K.Vasiljev, suggested to distinguish two periods in the history of homoeopathy in Odessa: the 1st period- the first adherents of S. Hahnemann appeared in the city; the 2nd period (since 1887) - homoeopathic pharmacies and hospitals are opened, homoeopathic societies are created, and a homoeopathic journal is published.
The 1st period (till 1868) covers the activity of doctor Nikolay Pavlovich Raevskiy in Odessa, a close acquaintance of the poet M. Lermontov. He was the author of memoirs about the poet. Nikolay Raevskiy was born in 1819 (or 1820) in the town Yelatma to the family of hereditary nobleman of Tambovskaya province. In 1838 being the pupil of the Nobiliary regiment he became an ensign in the military service. After the Crimean war of 1853-1856 the retired lieutenant N.P. Raevskiy got the diploma of a doctor. We meet his name in the list of doctors of Odessa in the 70s-80s of the 19th century. In 1886 his brochure was published in Odessa titled Mutual aid or treatment of diphtheria without doctors manuals and expensive pharmacies by homoeopathy. Dr. N.P. Raevskiy died suddenly on June, 10(22), 1889 in Odessa, where he was buried.

Shortly before his death Homoeopathic Bulletin (1889 3, p.146-147) marked that three doctors-homoeopaths work in Odessa already; besides N. Raevskiy there were Yankel Solomonovich Malinskiy and Nikolay Vasiljevich Skaryatin and that all of them had a lot of patients.

In the 1860s the city was headed by one of the largest Russians squires in Odessa, general-adjutant, the duke Semen Mihaylovich Vorontsov (1823 - 1882). For 15 years Ivan Fedorovich Stern (Johann Salomo Moses Stern, 28.06/10.07/ 1811 - 24.09/6.10/1888) was a family doctor in his family. In 1839 he graduated from the medical faculty of the Emperor's Derpt university (now Tartu in Estonia), whereupon he turned to Hahnemann study. Permanent employment in this family that lived for months in their estate in Livadia (Crimea), their accompaniment in the trips, prevented I.F. Stern from devoting some hours of leisure to patients. Only shortly before his death, after illness and old age, he gave up his duties for which he was rewarded by a decent pension.

In spite of the fact that in the first period of history of homoeopathy in Novorossia the number of homoeopaths was small, already in 1863 the pharmacist Tsorn opened the department of homoeopathic remedies at his pharmacy. Consequently, Odessa became the second city on the territory of modern Ukraine, where patients had a possibility to order and acquire dynamized preparations after opening of homoeopathic pharmacy in Kiev.

Now we will consider the second period (1869-1917).

In 1887 the homoeopathic pharmacy of the pharmacist Julius Alexandrovich Levi was opened in Odessa. Before this the pharmacist Yu.A. Levi worked in the homoeopathic pharmacy of Saint Petersburg at F. Fleming for nine years. The pharmacy was located at the corner of Pushkinskaya and Deribasovskaya streets (house 5/9). This pharmacy was the place where a group of the persons keen on the homoeopathic method of treatment was formed.

They formed Odessa Society of homoeopathy followers (OOHF). The Regulation of the society was ratified by Ministry of internal affairs on December, 26, 1890 by old (Julian) style (by new, Gregorian, - on January, 7, 1891). For this reason a number of authors have alternative version of formation of the Society (1891 and 1890 ). On April, 7(19), 1891 the OOHF inauguration took place. By the time of formation it became one of the first in the Empire. Petersburg Society of homoeopaths (1868), Petersburg Society of homoeopathy followers (1881), Kiev Society of homoeopathy followers (1889) were founded before it.

In 1891-92 the Society united 87 members from different strata of the society. The outstanding figures of the high society of the end of the 19th century were the honoured members and founders: secret councilor and mayor of the city G.G. Marazli; full state councilor I.P. Barkovskiy; lieutenant-general P.A. Zelenoy; general-adjutant O.B. Richter; member of the State Council H.H. Roop; a major-general the earl N.Ya. Rostovtsev. The representatives of clergy were also included in the cohort of adherents and followers of the method: your Eminence Archbishop Iustiniy, your Eminence Archbishop Nikanor. The abbot of the Kronshtadt cathedral Ioann Sergiev (now canonized Ioann Kronshtadtskiy) and a number of the known civilians were the honoured members of the Society. Lev Eugenijevich Brazol, practicing in Saint Petersburg at that time and being the representative of Saint Petersburg Philanthropic Society of homoeopathy followers, was the brain and organizer of medical activity of the Society (herein is another link of the northern and southern the capitals of the Empire). Lev Brazol was actively engaged in popularization of the homoeopathic method among all levels of population, he delivered public lectures: About the Homoeopathic law of similarity, About Homoeopathic pharmacology, About the Homoeopathic doses (a big auditorium of the Pedagogical Museum in St.Petersburg, assembly hall of the Novorossiysky university in Odessa). He also had disputes with allopaths in publishing editions (Odessa news, Bulletin of homoeopathic medicine, Doctor-homoeopath, allopathic journal Doctor).

Lieutenant-general N.N. Teplov was elected the first chairman of OOHF (who was not a doctor), a treasurer was the pharmacist Yu.A. Levi, a secretary - the doctor Karl Karlovich Boyanus (junior). The father of the latter was a homoeopath Karl Karlovich Boyanus (1818-1897), the author of the book Homoeopathy in Russia. History essay; his three sons became physicians, and were the followers Hahnemann like their father. Dr. Boyanus-senior became one of the members-founders of OOHF, though he did not live in Odessa by the regulation of the Society its members could be from other cities. The lists of members-founders of the society also included archbishop of Kherson and Odessa Nikanor (1826-1890); public figure and philanthropist Marazli Grigoriy Grigorevich (1831-1907), doctor of the applied mathematics, professor of the Novorossiysky university, in the 90s- the municipal mayor; Valerian Nikolaevich Ligin (1846-1900); a chairman of the Odessa commercial court Pavel Nikolaevich Kich (1848 -1905); Greek consul-general; merchant and representative of Greece in Odessa Ivan Grigorjevich Vuchina (1833-1902) and others. As we see, Hahnemann ideas were widespread among Odessa representatives of the local elite, whose support (administrative and financial) promoted the creation of the Society. Of 25 members-founders of OOHF only one was a pharmacist (Yu.A. Levi), and the three were doctors (already mentioned father and son Boyanus, and also a well-known Petersburg homoeopath Brazol Lev Eugenjevich (1854-1927). Then Mikhail Alekseevich Rzhanitsin and Ivan Mitrofanovich Lutsenko (1863-1919) doctors-homoeopaths practicing in Odessa became members of the Society. 25 members-founders were in the lists of the Society in 1897, 9 honoured and 40 actual members.

Opening of the homoeopathic hospital for outpatients at the Yu.A. Levi pharmacy on April, 7, 1897 became a large event in OOHF life. Activity of this hospital was of charitable character that was characteristic not only of homoeopathic, but also of all medical societies in Russia, which opened hospitals based on charity. There were two doctors on duty by turns in the hospital - Frederic Khristianovich Yurgenson and Arthur Alexandrovich Shtegeman, who became the actual members of OOHF by that time. F.Kh. Yurgenson was obstetrician -gynaecologist by speciality and practiced not only as a homoeopath. 2567 paying patients visited the hospital in 1898 (1/2 of all visits of the hospital), the poor were given aid free of charge. A considerable financial support of the Society activity was rendered by Yu.A. Levi.

Meantime, a disunity happened in OOHF. It began with disagreements concerning the necessity of opening of the second homoeopathic pharmacy in Odessa. I.M. Lutsenko suggested the Society to organize its own pharmacy. He proved that in such a large city, as Odessa, it will not work in prejudice of the private pharmacy of Yu. A. Levi. At that time (1896) there were 4 pharmacies in Saint Petersburg, 2 -in Moscow, 2-in Warsaw, and by one in Odessa, Kiev, Vilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania), Riga, Kharkov, Zhitomir, Tiflis (now Tbilisi, Georgia), Kovno (now Kaunas, Lithuania) and Belostok (present Poland). Thus, totally 17 pharmacies worked in the Russian Empire. OOHF did not support this idea of I.M. Lutsenko .

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